Music theory the easy way
First, here's the layout of the notes, with Green = C (one could also call it "Do"). I've also named the lines, so as to give us navigation points. Below is also a chart of the relative numbers given to notes.
Note that the F is distinctly on the minor side, and sure enough, sounds a bit minor played against the C.
The colouring both helps you understand, and aids navigation. The use of C as the root is for simplicity.
Note that the key centre is also called the root, and sometimes the tonic.
Making the major and minor chords
There seems to be a key-centre "backbone", sometimes played as two notes, sometimes with the octave added.
If you put a note to the right of the key centre "backbone" (my term), it's a major chord.
If you put it to the left, the chords generally have a minor feel.
The favorite notes to use in conjunction with the "backbone" is the major third and the minor third. An incredible amount of music (90%?) is based on these triads.
Learn these patterns and you are are well on the way to learning the jammer, half of all music theory, and even how to compose. An inversion, on the jammer, is just moving a note from the root line to the octave line.
Tip: The diagrams can be printed for closer inspection.
Adding to the Triads:
Making the various flavors of Seventh Chords
There's still a sizeable gap between the 5th and the octave. Can we add note into this gap?
It turns out there are several. Each creates a different flavor of chord. Each chord is also classified by the starting Triad.
Here are the chords based on the Major triad:
And the Minor triad:
That's it - that's the bulk of the chords used in western music
Lessons to take away:
1) It's not rocket science. It's not even high school algebra. It's simple to memorize.
2) All of these can be fingered easily on the jammer. Most with only 2 fingers (the exception is the common 7th and the rare minor-major 7th
3) The thumb is never needed, so we can do other things with it.
And here are some of the good jazz chords.
note: the last chord set is not a augmented chord, it's a 9th chord without it's 7th, or a 1-5, add nine.
This error will be corrected, sorry.